The school is one of the official bodies in society that takes the function of raising children and raising their capacity and skills in various fields, working alongside the family in socializing the individual and instilling human values.
There are many definitions that have shown what a school is and its most important functions, including:
- A community-created foundation to prepare members of the new generation, teach them to participate in the human activities that abound in the life of the community, and to integrate this generation into society and work to adapt it in terms of ideas, philosophy and goals.
- A regular socio-educational institution established by the government or society to work on the education and preparation of individuals within a specific framework of specific programmes and curricula.
- An institution or organization, working to guide the educational process correctly and this is the basis of its strength, it is no longer as it was known that its primary role in preserving the cultural heritage and values of the cultural community, transmitting it from one generation to another, teaching students to read and write in old ways such as indoctrination, but has evolved The school has become an educational place to raise the child properly physically, mentally and emotionally, with the aim of creating a balanced and balanced personality.
- An official institution, created for the need of society, by forming social relations within it, to carry out the educational functions specified for it, which aims to raise the student from all aspects necessary, in order to preserve and sustain society.
Foreign educators defined the school as:
- Ferdinand Buisson's definition: a necessary social institution, whose importance lies in maintaining the process of communication between the family and the state, with the aim of creating a new generation that integrates into social life.
- Frederick Hastings Definition: A complex system based on structured behavior that achieves a range of functions and functions within a particular framework of the social system.
- Raymond Don's definition: A social system that performs a range of functions such as integration and social mobility, and this educational system includes a group of knowledgeable people, whose goal is to bring out a new generation on high efficiency, and to work on the continuity of this system.
The school has certain characteristics as a social institution, including:
- The school is a social and educational institution that prepares the learner to be a positive person in society.
- The school consists of a group of individuals in two categories: teachers and pupils, where teachers have a degree of culture, science and academic merit, and they are the ones who carry out the process of education, while the second category is the pupils who receive the education, and this category is subject to many tests, and the rest of the Members of this institution, such as administrators and others, are in the position of helping to organize and facilitate the educational process.
- The school's work is based on social interaction, focusing on the educational process, and the need to oblige the student to abide by the curriculum by applying a set of facts, skills and ethical values.
- The school is the focal point of the many social relationships interacting with each other, such as pupils, teachers and the community in which they live.
- There is a sense of pride and belonging to this educational institution, and the period they spend in school is the most important period of their lives, and this feeling is evident in competitive matches.
- A certain culture is spread in the school, which is an essential aspect of the morality and behaviour of students and teachers, and has a prominent role in strengthening relationships and ties between them.
The school's job is not limited to teaching students some of the science and scientific knowledge, but also more than that, such as:
- Cultural transport, where the school works to transfer the heritage of heritage to the new generation in an easy and easy way after revising it and clearing it of the myths that were stuck in it.
- Social integration, because the society contains many different groups, it is the role of the school, to remove the contradictions that may exist between these groups and to integrate them.
- The personal growth of the school student is working to take care of him inside and outside its borders, by creating a strong and cohesive personality.
- Develop new behavioral and social patterns in the individual, and work to develop them on scientific and knowledge bases, so that the student can adapt to the society in which he or she lives.
- Developing creative abilities, the school works to develop scientific abilities, nurtures creative ideas, and develops the cognitive curiosity that drives it to succeed.
- Provide the right environment that encourages students to exercise their democratic right and human relationship at school and abroad.
The role of the school in the mental health of students
The school is the proper educational and social construction of children, which is second only to the family, because of its environment that contributes to the mental and social health of students, it is very important in providing care to them, especially since the role of the family these days is no longer the same as before, given Because of the high occupancy of the work, the lack of time, and the great responsibilities of the educators, but previously life was characterized by ease and ease, and there is a bit of simplicity, and the requirements of life are limited, hence the importance of the school, and the role it plays in the care of children and their upbringing, they go on Most of their day, so the role of the school is no longer limited to academic education, and in the middle of receiving scientific information, and different skills, but has become a small safe society in which members interact with each other, and the personality of the student is formed as a result of being influenced by others around him, he finds care Physical, mental, psychological and social care at the same time.
At school, the student acquires many skills, such as thinking that is generated as a result of teamwork among students, making friends, and doing many different activities within the school, all of which refine the student's personality, and develop his ability to solve the problems facing him, and take responsibility. The school is a complement to the role of the student's first environment, the family, which aims to raise a strong and healthy generation, learn how to strive for success, how to cope with failure, and how to conform psychologically to circumstances, and accept life with hope, optimism and enthusiasm.