The concept and meaning of democracy
The concept of democracy
Language: The word democracy (In Greek DemosKratia); the word consists of two parts: the first part of the word (In Greek Demos), meaning: the general public, or the people, and the second part (In Greek Kratia/Kratos) meaning: judgment, the sum of the word is given meaning: the rule of the people, or the general rule People.
Terminology: It is one of the existing systems of government, in which governance, legislation, or the power to make laws are the right of the people, the people, or the nation (whose concept was subsequently the concept of the people). In short, democracy means that the rule of the people (the rule of the people is the rule of the people) is the most important characteristic that distinguishs democracy from other systems of government.
According to the British Knowledge Service, democracy can be used for several meanings: parliamentary, legal and direct. Direct democracy is one of many forms of government, in which citizens exercise the right to make decisions in political matters based on the opinion of the majority, and the word democracy may also be used to describe any other system, political, social or economic. The American Circle of Knowledge defines democracy as: the different ways in which people are involved in government, such as liberalism based on popular representation, constitutional government, and the right to general election, and this kind of democracy prevails in the states. United kingdom and Britain.
Because the development of constitutions goes hand in hand with the development of the idea of democracy, the world's constitutional movement has undergone many changes, including what was constitutional, such as the U.S. and French Constitutions, and what the constitutions of newly independent states did, or emerged after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, as in other countries. Eastern Europe, and some of which was launched with the rise of new powers, such as India, Turkey and Brazil. Although there are many paths of democratic transition, these countries relied on a certain set of factors when writing and adopting their constitutions, the most important of which are the level of social development in the country, and the country's regional and international circumstances at the moment of democratic transition, which is why the Constitution The appropriate system for one country may not be commensurate with another, because the democratic transformation of a state is not necessarily a complete projection of the old Constitution, but may be a set of amendments to it, to suit the new phase and its nature.
Types of democracy
Democracy can be divided into two types:
- Direct democracy: or the so-called pure democracy, where the people vote on decisions made by the government, such as the ratification or rejection of newly drafted laws, and called direct democracy, because the people in it exercise their right to make decisions directly without intermediaries, or from On their behalf, this type of government was rare, because it was difficult to have and gather individuals in one place, in order to vote on the decisions that were put in place, so all the former democracies of the direct type were within the confines of small societies, and those who were known for their democracies Direct ancient Athens.
- Parliamentary democracy: the political system in which members of the government are voted by the people, and these members make decisions that are in the interests of the voters, and are also named because the people do not vote for the decisions taken by the government, but elect deputies who decide This kind of democracy has spread in recent times, so that the majority of the world's population is in their judgment of this type of parliament, which is also called (in particular) the republican system.
Democracy and Islam
The subject of democracy is one of the broader topics that accommodates more than one opinion and one point of view, due to the change in the concept over time that has made it difficult to define the term in a agreeable manner. For these and other reasons, opinions in democracy have multiplied and criticized it, making it difficult to put them together in an article, or even in a single book. These are some examples of what has been said.
The View of Democracy in Islam
Abbas Mahmoud Al-Akkad believes that the law of Islam is the foremost of the other laws in determining the existence of human democracy, which means democracy, which is the right of man to win it of his own volition, he has to choose his government by it, it is not set to prevent a certain evil, or put an end to sedition, but it is one of the measures that Governments use them to facilitate required obedience, access to the services of their employees and wage earners, and Islamic democracy is based on four foundations, which distinguish it from other democracies:
- Individual responsibility, which has been repeated in many places in the Qur'an, is not held accountable for the guilt of others, nor does man be held accountable for the sin of his fathers or grandfathers.
- The general rights among people, and their equality in them, where the Qur'an called for equal descent and action.
-  He said in another place: "He was sought in another place." The Prophet has applied the principle of god. The Shura in many situations, he took the opinions of his companions after consulting them, and he did what they said contrary to what he saw.
- Solidarity among members of society of different sects and classes, where the nation lives together in solidarity, solidarity, and each one pushes evil from the other, as much as it can, and says akkad: If there are these four foundations on which democracy is based, and not on others, it does not matter what it is called from Names, absent or present.