What is the ozone layer

Ozone layer
The ozone layer is the upper atmosphere, rising between 15 and 35 km above ground level, characterized by the high concentration of its ozone molecules, where approximately 90% of the atmosphere's ozone is present in the stratosphere, which extends from 10 to 18 to 50 km above The Earth's surface, characterized by the stratosphere, is characterized by its temperature rising and rising upwards, as a result of the absorption of solar radiation by the ozone layer, preventing solar radiation less than 290 nm of reaching the Earth, including radiation that may harm or kill living organisms.

The ozone layer is one of the stratosphere layers that represent the second layer of the Earth's atmosphere, which consists of several layers, and the amount of ozone in the atmosphere is small, with 3 ozone molecules per 10 million molecules in the air, yet they lead An important role, as it absorbs parts of the solar radiation that hit the Earth, and despite the need for some solar radiation necessary for life, much of the radiation can harm living organisms, i.e. the ozone layer is a shield of protection for life on Earth, and it is mentioned that it restricts the rays above Violet sire, which can penetrate the protective layers of living organisms, such as the skin, and destroy dna molecules.

Ozone layer formation
Ozone (O3) in the stratosphere is produced mainly by breaking the chemical bonds between oxygen molecules through high-energy solar photons in photosynthesis, resulting in the release of monooxygen atoms, which in turn bind to the atomic oxygen molecules (O2). The number of people who have been displaced by the united nations has increased significantly since the end of the year.

The importance of ozone and its side effects
The ozone molecules in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) are similar to those in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) chemically, in both cases the ozone molecule consists of 3 oxygen atoms, but they differ among themselves in terms of their roles in the atmosphere and their effect on Organisms, where stratospheric ozone, also called good ozone, play a beneficial role, and this is the absorption of most harmful UV-B rays, allowing only a small amount of sunlight to pass through to the Earth's surface, and this absorption of radiation causes heat in a layer The stratosphere itself, so ozone plays an essential role in the thermal structure of the atmosphere, without its filtering process, more UV-B rays will be carried out from the atmosphere and reach the earth's surface, and many practical studies have shown the harmful effects of increased exposure to radiation. UV-B on humans, plants, and animals.

Ozone in the troposphere and near the Earth's surface is different from the natural ozone found in the stratosphere, where tropospheric ozone indirectly results from air pollution from plant emissions, car exhausts and power plants, i.e. it is made Humans, for example, emit nitrogen oxide gases as well as volatile organic compounds from the combustion of coal and gasoline, which increases the likelihood that these compounds are associated with oxygen to form ozone during sunny days in the summer, spring and early autumn seasons, where their concentration increases in These hot periods during the afternoon and early evening are caused by fumes, but they are most likely dispersed during the evening when the air cools, in addition to this type of ozone is considered highly toxic, as repeated exposure to ozone results in the permanent destruction of the lungs, or some infections Respiratory problems, such as asthma and bronchitis, can cause chest pain, throat irritability and cough, but it plays little role in global climate change.

Ozone depletion
Ozone molecules in the stratosphere break down when they interact with bromine and chlorine atoms, for example, a single chlorine atom can destroy more than 100,000 ozone molecules and then remove them from the stratosphere, when some compounds are exposed to intense UV radiation in Stratospheric - They release chlorine or bromine, contributing to ozone depletion, so they are called ozone-depleting substances, and although these substances are released to the surface of the earth, they are eventually transferred to the stratosphere during a process of about 2-5 years.